They also frequently contain detailed joint explanatory statements on the compromise text as well, and as such, are usually quite valuable in discerning legislative intent. Beginning with volume 90 th Congress; the pages for the daily edition of the Congressional Record are consecutively numbered within a congressional session, but they start with a letter corresponding to different sections in each issue: S Senate proceedings , H House proceedings , E Extension of Remarks , and D Daily Digest. In the daily edition of the Record , between the Extension of Remarks and Daily Digest sections, on various days during the week, is placed a list of members of Congress, member committee assignments, House and Senate officers, Supreme Court justices with the circuits assigned to them, and a helpful page entitled " Laws and Rules for Publication of the Congressional Record.
Beginning with volume 93 1 st session, 80 th Congress; , each day's issue of the Congressional Record began to be accompanied by a "Daily Digest" , which summarizes Senate and House chamber and committee actions with cites to page numbers in that day's proceedings.
Records of the United States Senate | National Archives
The daily digests, placed in the back of the daily edition, are later published together in the hardbound permanent edition of the Congressional Record as a separate book final part for each session volume with the references to pages in the bound edition. New public laws and committee meetings and floor schedules for the following day or week are also noted in the Daily Digest of the daily edition, but not in the bound edition.
At the end of the daily edition of the Daily Digest is an explanation on how to obtain access or a subscription to the Congressional Record. The Daily Digest is very helpful in finding particular proceedings in the Record , and it is generally the only place where most all hearings and committee actions are noted in the Record. The material in the index is organized alphabetically by subject or last name and it notes and cites to the bills, remarks, letters, and other items in the Record.
Not until volume are dates noted in the bound index. The bound permanent index, which has been a part of the Congressional Record from its beginning, is normally the last part or second to last part preceding the Digest published in a session volume series and it is usually released some five or so years after the end of a congressional session. From the beginning the Index to the bound Congressional Record has always been accompanied by a separate Senate and House "History of Bills and Resolutions.
Notations to dates with the page numbers have only been given since volume The biweekly index also contains a history of bills and resolutions, but it only covers measures that have had some action during the biweekly period. Hearings are not noted in these histories and while beginning page numbers to debates are noted the debates may continue for multiple pages without being so noted.
Remarks on newly introduced bills are also not noted, but they can be found using the index. Finally it is important to understand that a bill's history may have prior or subsequent notations in a previous or subsequent session of the same congress. Besides the proceedings and index, an appendix, containing daily extensions of remarks and inserted documents has almost always been a part of the Congressional Record , but it has had a varied history.
Since the days of the Register of Debates members of Congress have had the opportunity to add speeches or revisions to remarks not delivered on the floor. This, as well as other material see above , was normally placed in an appendix to the debates at the end of a congressional session. The practice was continued in the Congressional Record with members, usually from the House, being free to withhold their remarks for revision or to insert speeches and other material under "leave to print" motions that were later placed in an appendix to the Record.
From volumes 1 through 57 43 rd - 65 th Congresses; appendices to the bound edition of the Congressional Record for each congressional session had their own consecutive pagination with the phrase "Appendix to the Congressional Record" at the top of each page. This early Appendix also had its own index and was either bound with the debates and proceedings or with the regular index.
In volumes 58 to 62 66 th Congress through the second session of the 67 th Congress; pagination to the bound Appendix continued from the consecutive sequence in the proceedings and the Appendix no longer had its own index. Then, beginning with volume 63 third session of the 67 th Congress, , the Appendix to the bound Congressional Record ceases and does not reappear until volume However, during this time the daily edition of the Record still continued to have an appendix with speeches and inserts not said on the floor.
By unanimous request such material was frequently placed in the main body of the Senate proceedings, but this was seldom the case in the proceedings of the House.
Unanimous requests to insert material were often objected to by some members of the House and apparently the rules of the House and the Joint Committee on Printing called for greater discipline as well. However, inserted material on the Senate side was often included in the main body of its proceedings and is noted in the Congressional Record Index.
Beginning with the volume 81 75 th Congress, 1 st session, the Appendix is again published in the bound Congressional Record with notes to its pages in the bound Index. Pagination in this new Appendix series is consecutively numbered in a separate format from the debates and proceedings, and starting with volume 87 77 th Congress, 1 st Session, each page numeral in the appendix begins with the letter "A".
Number of Bills Introduced and Laws Passed in the Minnesota Legislature, 1849-present
Commencing with volume 83 rd Congress, 2 nd Session, , the Appendix to the daily edition was dropped altogether from the bound version of the Congressional Record until volume 90 th Congress, 1 st Sess. During this thirteen year period from through , only material in the daily Appendix that was considered germane to Senate and House proceedings was published in the bound Congressional Record and incorporated in an "Extensions of Remarks" section which was placed after the daily House or Senate proceedings.
Material in the daily Appendix that was not considered germane, such as reprinted editorials, articles, speeches by executive branch officials and the like, was not printed in the bound Congressional Record during that time. Consequently, many libraries have collected the pages of the daily Appendix, with its newspaper quality paper, bound the pages together by session, and placed the books alongside their corresponding Congressional Record volumes.
Some microform editions of the bound Congressional Record also carry the daily Appendix for this time period. Beginning with volume 90 th Congress, 1 st Sess. The bound Congressional Record for has a separately numbered Appendix with all the daily extensions of remarks, but beginning with volume 90 th Congress, 2 nd Sess. The Extension of Remarks section in the Record has for several decades been almost exclusively used by members of the House, as members of the Senate generally use unanimous request procedures to insert documents they want published.
There are now many sources for the Congressional Record both free and commercial. As early as , a full-text electronic version of the daily edition of the Congressional Record has been available on the LexisNexis and Westlaw commercial databases as well as on CQ. The Library of Congress' Congress. Bill status summaries on Congress. HeinOnline has also digitized the Congressional Record Daily Edition from to the present and uniquely has provided a daily corresponding table between the pages of the daily edition and the bound edition.
However, the history of bills does not include page number and date citations until In January of GPO announced the completion of its project to make available electronically via Govinfo the bound Congressional Record in searchable PDF format from to and from to the near present. Bear in mind that from to documents in the Bound Record encompass an entire book or part of a volume not just one day's worth and the background image on each page is a bit dark.
116th Congress (12222-2020)
Commercially, both HeinOnline and Proquest purchased from LexisNexis have digitized and made searchable the complete bound edition of the Congressional Record as well as predecessor publications. Predecessor publications to the Record are also available for free through the Library of Congress American Memory Project , 20 which has optically scanned all the early series , including the complete Annals of Congress , Register of Debates , and Congressional Globe , as well as the early Senate and House Journals from to While the Library of Congress works are not word searchable nor in PDF there are a number of indices and navigators to the publications that are word searchable.
Besides the Congressional Record, which is a "substantially" verbatim account of House and Senate proceedings, C-SPAN has been recording and transmitting televised coverage of House proceeding since March 29, and Senate proceedings since June 2, Notice to House Members. Congressional Record, v. To obtain a Congressional Record document by citation method on LexisNexis daily edition only you can use the following format: Cong.
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H , with a space between the H and the numeral. The same format can be used on Westlaw also daily edition only but without the space Cong. Both Lexis and Westlaw have the daily Record back to vol. Until recently most all the electronic versions of the Record were of the daily edition. However, as noted above, now GPO, HeinOnline and Proquest all have digital copies of the bound edition of the Congressional Record back to its beginning in Once the permanent bound edition of the Congressional Record becomes available it is considered the proper source to cite.
However, it generally takes more than a half decade after the conclusion of a congressional session before the Government Publishing Office publishes all the parts of a session volume of the permanent bound Record , including its index. Even after a permanent volume of the Record has been published there has been, until recently, no easy method for determining a bound pagination cite if all you have is a cite to the daily edition.
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You must try to use the bound index or daily digest and try to hunt for the passage in question looking perhaps for a key phrase at the beginning of a paragraph in the approximate area under a particular heading in the proper day and section of the bound Record. Sometimes pages in the daily edition and bound edition look like mirror images of one another and the job is a little easier. Remember, if all you have are photocopied pages from the Congressional Record , page numbers from the daily edition will, after , always have a letter before the numeral, but beware of concluding that straight numeric numbered pages are from bound edition if they occur before As noted earlier, even before , because the Record is reorganized, there is no correspondence in the numeric pagination of the bound Record and the daily Record.
However, HeinOnline has produced a daily to bound pagination locator by providing a beginning page number to the daily and bound Congressional Record for each section of the Record - Senate, House and Extension of Remarks. As of this writing HeinOnline has a locator for the years see Citation Navigator for the Record. Since , the flow and publication of Senate proceedings and debate have generally followed a common pattern. The Senate is called to order by the presiding officer who, according to the Constitution, is the Vice President of the United States, but since the mid-twentieth century the Senate is usually chaired by the President pro tempore the Senator with the most seniority in the majority party or the Acting President pro tempore designated by him or her.
The Presiding officer refers to himself or herself as the chair and is addressed as Mr. President or Madam President. A typical Senate day is begun by prayer and followed by an explanation by the majority leader of the day's schedule. Next is the transaction of routine morning business. This includes most procedural matters, such as the receipt of presidential messages, executive communications, and messages from the House, the filing of committee reports, the introduction of bills and resolutions, and other matters, and concludes with miscellaneous floor speeches delivered by various Senators under prearranged "special orders" usually no more than five minutes each.
After morning business legislative measures are then considered and debated but these may be interrupted by other non-germane speeches from Senators recognized by the presiding officer. Senate debate is generally unlimited by time or subject matter. Although morning business precedes Senate debate in time, since , most of the items in the morning business are generally placed in the Record after measures being considered and debated.
Also since , after the listing of measures introduced, most senators will have inserted into the Record a statement on the bill they are introducing and often the text as well. Commencing in the text of proposed amendments follows these statements on measures introduced and then by "additional statements" not delivered on the floor.
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